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Commercial and Industrial Battery Database

When it comes to the power of batteries, their advantages and disadvantages, and the way they should be used, Cellergy has amassed a wealth of knowledge. Cellergy has developed a database of general battery information and the impact of Supercapacitors, and, in their capacity as power experts, Cellergy offers this knowledge to its clients and potential clients.

Primary Non-rechargeable Batteries

List of Primary Batteries:

  • Lechlanche Dry Cells
  • Alkaline (Alkaline Manganese Dioxide)
  • Zinc/Silver Oxide
  • Silver Zinc Batteries
  • Zinc Air Batteries

General Information:

  • When compared to rechargeable batteries, primary non-rechargeable batteries:
  • Are used once, then discarded
  • Have the advantages of higher convenience and lower cost per battery
  • Have the disadvantage of higher long term cost
  • Have higher capacity and initial voltage
  • A sloping discharge curve

Advantages:

  • High energy density
  • Wide availability of standard products
  • Best alternative for low cost low drain applications

Disadvantages:

  • Not suitable for high drain applications due to short life-span
  • High cost of continuous replacement
  • Uneconomical energy source, producing 2% of the power used for manufacturing
  • Produces more waste

List of Lithium Batteries:

  • Lithium Ion (Li-ion) Batteries
  • Lithium Ion Polymer (Li Po) Batteries
  • Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Batteries
  • Lithium Sulfur (Li2S8) Batteries

General Information:

Lithium is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Lithium batteries consist of Lithium anode (negative electrode). They are characterized by their high energy density and high nominal voltage.

Advantages:

  • Highest energy density
  • High nominal voltage - 2.7V to 3.9V
  • Can extend to a wide temperature range (-55°C to +150°C)

Disadvantages:

  • Highly reactive, corroding quickly and causing passivation layer (like all alkali metals)
  • Highly flammable in its elemental state, due to sensitivity to high temperatures
  • Relatively high internal impedence (10-30 Ω) due to the nonaqueous (organic or inorganic) electrolyte
  • Government safety regulations limiting its weight allowance in commercial shipments, increasing distribution costs of lithium cells larger than the AA or AAA size

Lithium Chemistry Differences:

  • Nominal, minimum and maximum voltage
  • Initial, average and maximum discharge current
  • Continuous or Pulse operation
  • Service life conditions
  • Shelf life conditions
  • Operating-temperature range
  • Permitted Voltage drop

Recognized Types of Lithium Batteries:

  • Sulfur dioxide lithium Li-SO2
  • Lithium thionyl chloride Li-SOCI2
  • Manganese dioxide lithium Li-MNO2
  • Poly carbon monofluoride lithium (CF)X-Li
  • Lithium iodine Lil2

Secondary (Rechargeable) Batteries

List of Secondary (Rechargeable) Batteries:

  • Lead Acid Batteries
  • Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Batteries
  • Nickel Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries
  • Nickel Iron (NiFe) Batteries
  • Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Batteries
  • Nickel Zinc (NiZn) Batteries

General Information:

Secondary batteries come in many different sizes and use different combinations of chemicals. They are appropriate for long term applications, even-though individual batteries are more expensive. Generally, secondary batteries have lower capacity and initial voltage, a flat discharge curve, and higher self discharge rates. They use electrochemical reactions that are electrically reversible, and the rechargeable battery system reduces the toxic materials dispersed into the environment.

Advantages:

  • Best solution for high drain applications
  • Cost is paid back quickly for high utilization applications
  • Increased economic and environmental benefits
  • Flat discharge curve

Disadvantages:

  • Cost of charger - for low cost applications the charger can cost much more than the actual product
  • Safety issues with main power
  • Lower energy density
  • Higher self discharge rates
  • Lower initial voltage
  • Higher self discharge current